100 interesting facts about Odessa

The Southern Palmyra is associated with the sea, warmth, extraordinary architecture and heroes. It is associated with many stories, legendary discoveries. We offer facts related to the history of Odessa, interesting, famous and those about which no one previously knew.

  1. The name of the city "Odessa" goes back to the period when the Greek colony Odessos was located on this territory.
  2. The layout, conceived by Franz de Vallan, was specially designed so that the façade part of the city was located exactly to the sea.
  3. The first building of the city on August 22, 1794 was built for Volkonsky Street. Lanzheronovskaya.
  4. The first church was to them. Nikolai the Sad, in whose place the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral was later built.
  5. Cobblestone is the real wealth of Odessa, which solved the problem of impassable roads. Each stone was delivered directly from Naples, from under Vesuvius. The plots, laid out exactly by that tile, were preserved in the streets of Pushkinskaya, Deribasovskaya.
  6. After the termination of financing of the port's structure, local merchants sent Emperor Pavel a present - 3000 oranges. The gift was appreciated by the ruler and soon the money was given out at interest for 25 years - this decision saved Odessa. Today in memory of this "transaction" in Odessa is a monument to an orange.
  7. At the beginning of the formation of Odessa has suffered from a lack of drinking water, so the fountains were installed in the city: small, medium and large, through which water provides the critical areas. Later, when the water was sold at the market and was of low quality, they said: "No fountain!". Since then, this phrase is used by Odessa citizens, when they want to designate something of poor quality.
  8. 1880 was marked by the opening of the first line of horse-drawn railway, which began on the route Richelieu, and then passed to the postal, cable, Sabaneyev alley, with a final stop at the beach "Langeron". The cars were up to 4 m in length, and up to 2.3 m in width.
  9. Introduced in 1819 the duty-free zone, "free port" lasted 40 years, which made it possible to raise the economy of the city and make it to 1830 the largest port on the Black Sea, exporting wheat.
  10. Despite the fact that the movement of Odessa is right-handed, there are sections where it is changed to the left-hand - the Italian Boulevard and the High Lane.
  11. In 1829 in Odessa, for the first time in the world, bleach was used as an antiseptic for combating cholera.
  12. In 1827 the first issue of the newspaper "Odessa Herald" was published.
  13. In 1837 the city consisted of 47 streets, and by the number of people in the empire took the 4th place, after St. Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw.
  14. In 1838 it was in Odessa, the only one in the whole empire, that the first time asphalt was laid.
  15. The year 1873 was marked by the opening of the Dniester-Odessa water pipeline, which solved the problem with water.
  16. In 1877 in Odessa was the first in the Russian Empire sewage system.
  17. In 1886, the first bacteriological station in the empire was opened in Odessa, and the second - in the whole world.
  18. In 1894 the first asphalt track in Russia was built on Mikhailovskaya Square. Here there were competitions of bicyclists "The First Ride of the South of Russia", "International Rounds".
  19. In 1908 the first Russian air club was opened.
  20. Deribasovskaya - pedestrian street of the city was originally named the Gymnasium in honor of the commercial gymnasium Volcea opened here. And only from 1811 she received the name Deribasovskaya.
  21. Odessa became the first city of the Russian Empire, on the streets of which a car appeared, in 1891. Its owner was Vasily Navrotsky - publisher of the newspaper "Odessa leaf".
  22. In Odessa, it produced the first Hebrew newspaper "Gamelits" and its annexes "Number mevaser" - the only Russian edition in Yiddish.
  23. In 1901 in Paris at the forum of architects Ekaterininskaya Square was recognized as the best architectural ensemble of Odessa.
  24. It was in Odessa in 1903 that the first ambulance station was opened for the entire Russian Empire.
  25. September 24, 1910 opened the electric tram line.
  26. In 1938 the zoo, which today is the oldest on the whole territory of Ukraine, was inaugurated.
  27. Once, at the beginning of the 19th century, the landowner A. Teutul, who lived in a manor house on a high hill of the shore, lit a fire. The sailors took this fire for a landmark and near the shore crashed. The landowner was shocked by the tragedy and soon the Odessa Lighthouse was built.
  28. The Potemkin Staircase was so named in no way in honor of Prince G. Potemkin. The initiator of the construction was Prince Vorontsov, he presented a gift without a title to his beloved wife. And only after the release of the film "Battleship Potemkin" Odessa citizens began to call her Potemkin. Officially, the name was fixed in the documents in the 1950s.
  29. This work of art Odessa shopping center "Passage" was recognized as the most luxurious architectural structure in Russia. And below, in its basement part there were warehouses, from which the goods were delivered to stores in racks in trolleys.
  30. Jose Deribas - the first mayor of Odessa knew 7 languages, was short (almost a dwarf) and exploits received the Maltese cross from Catherine. His services in the Battle of Ismail were described in Don Juan by Byron.
  31. Not only Jose Deribas made a significant contribution to the development of Odessa, but also his brother Felix - under his patronage the City Garden was founded. Trees were brought from Uman, Tulchin.
  32. Lanzheronovskaya Street is almost completely devoid of trees, but it is adorned with an old oak tree, branches of which are stretched by a chain - "the golden chain on an oak tree".
  33. In 1919 the first state film studio was opened in Ukraine. Here they shot "The meeting place can not be changed", "D'Artagnan and the Three Musketeers", "Vertical". And on the beach "Arcadia" was shot an episode with the tigers from the movie "Striped flight".
  34. The only exposition museum of cinema works in Odessa. Here are stored the glove of Vera Kholodnaya, Vysotsky's cape and hat, the first camera of A. Dovzhenko.
  35. The novel "12 chairs" - the creation of Odessa writers I. Ilf and E. Petrov, was screened 18 times in different parts of the world. The first screen adaptation of L. Gaidai took place in 1971, and five years later, in 1976, Zakharov's film with A. Mironov was released. Almost every foreign screen version was preliminarily adjusted to local realities: in Brazil, the main character was a girl; in America - the trainer of flea racing; even changing the number of chairs.
  36. For the filming of the film "Liquidation" about post-war Odessa was taken a real rarity - a tram in 1932, which was brought from Kharkov.
  37. The shooting of the film "Electronic" was almost completely carried out in Odessa - on the Kuyalnik estuary, the village of Kotovsky, in the Palace of Sport. And the main character lived on Kanatnaya Street 29.
  38. The first photographers of the city were Philip Haas, Kubat, Dietz, which is confirmed by their announcements posted in the newspaper "Odessa Gazette" in 1843. And the first photographic courses were founded in 1894.
  39. In honor of the sister city of Genoa, in Odessa the street is called Genoese, but in the Italian town there is ViaOdessa street.
  40. The family of merchants Hoffman in the late 19th century sold the Louvre tiara Saitafern, which has great historical and material value. But after a while, scientists questioned its authenticity, and were right - the decoration was made by Odessa, Israel Rukhomovsky. For his work, he was awarded a medal, and the tiara became very famous and is still part of the museum collection.
  41. In the collection of the Archaeological Museum of the city is preserved the zlatnik of Prince Vladimir - the first gold coin in Kievan Rus, and all in the world 11 - in the Hermitage (7), Russian GIM (1), the National Museum of History in Kiev (1) and Odessa. The location of another one is unknown.
  42. Once in the house 40 on Kanatnaya street the Vysotsky tea-packing factory was located - the tea company supplied tea directly to the Imperial Palace. The case of the founder was continued by his relatives in Israel.
  43. In Odessa, there are several houses without a wall: in Vorontsovsky Lane, Vera Inber, on Vera Kholodnaya Square and B. Khmelnitsky Street. In fact, this is an optical illusion, the wall is, but it is built at an angle of 45 degrees - during construction there was not enough money for building materials, so the rear wall immediately adjoins the front, forming a triangular shape.
  44. The monument to Lenin in the territory of the Pressmash plant was to be demolished according to the recently adopted Ukrainian law on "decommunization". But thanks to the sculptor A. Milov he quite harmoniously turned into a monument to Darth Vader, with an access point wi-fi installed in it.
  45. Street Preobrazhenskaya was renamed as many as seven times - it was Sredinaya, Trotsky, the Soviet Army, and even bore the name of King Mihai.
  46. The Museum of Interesting Sciences on Shevchenko Avenue is an entertaining place for the whole family to spend. Here the children reveal the secrets of physics through physical laws. For example, visitors are invited to measure the loudness of their voices, find out the cause of the tornado, tsunami, and find a way out of the labyrinth.
  47. Initially in the 30s of the 19th century Privoz was part of the Old Market. Merchants sold their goods directly from carts.
  48. In 1913 the Odessa football team became the champion of the Russian Empire.
  49. The world's largest St. George ribbon was deployed in Odessa in 2010 - 850 square meters. m., about 200 kg and length equal to the Potemkin Stairs.
  50. Until now, the city has preserved cave houses, the creators of which were still Cossacks.
  51. The cozy Fanconi cafe is a landmark of Odessa, visited Pushkin, Kuprin, Gogol, Chekhov, Gumilev, Mayakovsky, Utesov. In his memoirs Leonid Utesov says that he once set up in the cafe an original exhibition-auction on which the shackles of G. Kotovsky were sold.
  52. The historical flight in the skies of Odessa in 1910 was made by Mikhail Efimov, and a month later, Sergey Utochkin, the aviator engineer, flew first over the bay on an airplane.
  53. Mishka Yaponchik - the king of the criminal world did not like bloodshed and strictly punished his people for this. In addition, he enacted the "robbery code" law, according to which lawyers, artists, and doctors were inviolable to the mafia.
  54. If you look at the top of Odessa Castle Castle, built in 1826, then you will see a gloomy picture - the building was built in the form of a large cross.
  55. In Odessa there is a square to them. Ostap Bender area of ​​only 5 square meters. m and it is located on Deribasovskaya Street! This placement can only be in the city of humor.
  56. During the defense of Odessa (4.09 - 16.10 1941) plant them. January produced about 60 tanks, unusual in their construction - they were created from ordinary tractors, sheathed with ship steel. They fired two machine guns of caliber 7.62. Soldiers called the miracle of technology - the tank "To Fear".
  57. Stepan Dzhevetsky - Odessa, who created the first submarine.
  58. The Odessa funicular was first launched in 1902, connecting the port and the upper part of the city. The lifting machine was created according to the design of engineer I Pyatnitsky.
  59. The world's first Fountain of Spirits was opened in Odessa in honor of its 210th birthday by the Frenchman K. Lacarin. Every hour the fountain will spray spirits specially selected by the perfumer. The collection features 21 fragrances.
  60. The highest building in Odessa is the tower of the Ark-Palace complex - 106 m, the altitude record belongs to the television tower at Fontana - 175 m.
  61. Next to the Opera house stands the house of Navrotsky, built of red brick and owned by the owner of the newspaper "Odessa leaf". The owner revered art, that's why he opened a shelter for private poets, writers who could live full board for free.
  62. The oldest champagne factory in Ukraine is located in Odessa, on the French Boulevard. It was founded by Heinrich Rederer in the late 19th century, and one of the brands of sparkling wine produced by the plant bears the name of the founder.
  63. Marble "Laocoon and Sons" - an exact copy of the Vatican sculpture, created before BC. Impressed with her beauty in the picture, the merchant Marazli wished such a sculpture in his collection. After it was handed over to the state and today decorates the courtyard of the Archaeological Museum.
  64. Sculpture-fountain "Children and the Frog" on Lanzheronovskaya, 6 - a famous work of the early 20th century. Originally it was made in one copy, but there were more people willing to buy it. Then the sculptor Max Blond created a few more - today they are the property of Denver, Dijon, Dusseldorf, Zurich and Odessa.
  65. House "Blue Dream", located next to the Musical Comedy - a place where at an early age lived humorist Maxim Galkin.
  66. Yumorina - festival of laughter is held in Odessa from April 1, 1973. A prerequisite for the foundation of the festival was the closure in 1972 of the Odessa KVN. In 2012, 1,000 Japanese visited humor.
  67. The city has its own Alley of Stars, opened in 2014 at Lanzheronovskaya. The first stars are dedicated to A. Akhmatova, I. Babel, K. Muratova, M. Zhvanetsky, L. Utesov, S. Richter.
  68. The Wax Museum in Odessa is also there, and it is called "U Baba Ooty" - it features, including exhibits dedicated to people who are connected with the city - Deribas, Richelieu, Pushkin, Ilf, Akhmatova, Vysotsky, Ostap Bender. There are 70 figures in all.
  69. The first monument in Odessa was opened by de Richelieu in 1828.
  70. The feat of thousands of marines who stood up for the defense of the city in 1941 and who did not allow to take the city by storm, is immortalized by a monument to the Unknown Sailor.
  71. Odessa is one of the top three cities, whose residents set the records of Ukraine. All of them 15. One of the interesting records was the football marathon, during which 271 goals were scored. The title of the oldest cat, worn by Benjamin from the Moldavians, but in the summer of 2016 he was no more.
  72. Kirche - so in Odessa called the Lutheran Church of St. Peter and Paul. The German community completed its construction in 1827. In the late 19th century, it was rebuilt, and after the revolution, the war and the fire was recently restored.
  73. Misha Yaponchik - the hero of the Odessa mafia, became the prototype of the hero of "Odessa stories" writer Isaak Babel. And Mikhail Vodian in the 1980s played him in the operetta "At Dawn."
  74. The first educational institution in Odessa was Vretto Private School, functioning from 1800 to 1803.
  75. In Odessa in the 19th century there was a school of juvenile thieves, under the patronage of Sonya the Golden Hand. Exams surrendered on the street. Hospital / Zaporozhye in a special way - in the pockets of the boys were placed bells, the bell of which indicated that the task was failed.
  76. Museum of smuggling on the street. Catherine 6 - the first in Ukraine, was founded in 2013. Its exhibits are confiscated contraband and ways of its transfer. Founded by his military A. Sepunnov.
  77. The opening of the first Odessa City Public Library was held on April 15, 1830, although the decree on the foundation was signed as early as 1829 - the cause of the delay was the epidemic of plague.
  78. Women's College for the deaf-mutes is the first such institution in Russia, which was founded in the late 40s of the 19th century.
  79. The Richelieu Lyceum was founded in 1817, and its first director was Abbe Nicole, a friend of Richelieu.
  80. The first green eco-zone in the city from short acacias was created under Vorontsov and covered the city with a ring.
  81. The legendary 411 battery is a whole military complex, with its substation, water, ventilation, heating, food supplies. During the defense, the Odessa battery held 220 firing, and on the day of the escape, 2 tons of tolu was blown up. Today, a memorial museum with a wide display of different types of equipment and weapons has been opened on this site.
  82. One of the most famous markets of the city - Starokonny appeared in 1833, as a place to sell livestock. Today, there are sold animals, birds of many breeds, from different parts of the world. And not only.
  83. The Museum of "Underground Odessa Secrets" - Odessa catacombs, with hidden passages and labyrinths, which were an excellent shelter for smugglers, underground workers. Their total length is about 2.5 thousand km.
  84. The chocolate museum, located on Deribasovskaya Street 14, attracts visitors with unusual sweet sculptures. According to Reuteurs, in 2009 the museum took the 2nd place among the ten best of the world.
  85. The founder of the beach "Arcadia", who opened the first restaurant here, was the Belgian Emil Cambier.
  86. The palm avenue is a picturesque corner of Odessa, the real decoration of the city was discovered recently, in 2014. It was planted as a gift to Odessa, to create a unique atmosphere of the resort area near the beach "Arcadia" and as a confirmation of the status of "Southern Palmyra".
  87. Legends, according to which Teshchin bridge in Odessa got its name, there are two. One by one, it was so named because of its length and loosening in the wind, and the second - in its construction was interested. Tit (chairman of the party of the city committee) to go to his mother-in-law for pancakes. Today, lovers hang locks on it.
  88. A fabulous tunnel with pictures of the stories from different fairy tales is located on the French Boulevard. Its length is 200 m, the depth is 20 m, and it leads directly to the sea from the sanatorium "Magnolia".
  89. The cable car in Odessa owes its name to two cable plants, formerly located on it - Meshkov and Novikov. It is the continuation of the second today is the operating plant "Stalkanat". In addition, here, in 1827, Count Sabansky opened the largest in the city bread shop.
  90. Odessa is famous for unusual names of streets, the most ridiculous of them were st. Charlatan, Khalturina, Ukurova, Watermelon, Babushkina, Glukhaya, Golopuzovka district and the Suci Rog quarter.
  91. Odessa Opera House was included in the list of the most unusual sights of the Eastern Europe of Forbes magazine.
  92. The Museum of Jacors is a museum in the open air, in front of the church of St. Nicholas. Its exhibits are anchors raised from the seabed.
  93. Oak "Black Night" - a monument that has a passport, with the specified date of planting - 1820 year.
  94. One of the two women captains for the whole of the USSR was Bertha Rapoport, a native of Odessa, of Jewish origin.
  95. The Vorontsov lighthouse, the main lighthouse in the port of Odessa, together with the Lighthouse on the Transfiguration Street, help the seamen to determine the correct course to the port - they are visually arranged one above another and only their comparison allows us to pave the right way.
  96. The famous thievish jargon "Fenya" was formed precisely in Odessa, among local Jewish bandit groups. The Jews spoke Yiddish, Hebrew, and since for the police the words were not clear, the thieves' jargon was gradually formed: "to bother by the hair dryer" - to speak out in a special way; "Fraer" - not seen prison; "Thieves" - a man who has been arranged somewhere poblatu; "Ksiva" - a note, a certificate; "Hipesh" is a search. Sometimes the bandits deliberately distorted the expression, for example, saying: "to bother to sleep" - apparently Sonya the Golden Pen put her hand here.
  97. One of the most revered professions of Odessa in the 19-20 centuries was the work of a bandit.
  98. Special in Odessa and the cuisine, the dishes of which combine a mixture of many culinary traditions: Jewish, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Moldovan, Greek. Odessites treat their guests with stuffed fish, vegetables and small ones (which is not the case for the rest of Ukraine) with vareniki, cabbage rolls, and nuggets.
  99. In February 2016, the inhabitants of Odessa came to the Book of Records of Ukraine, blinded by 5247 vareniki.
  100. To the 120th anniversary of the Odessa Opera Theater, the National Bank of Ukraine issued a commemorative coin.
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