The unique Odessa flavor, special accent, characteristic humor, international cuisine, architectural diversity - everything suggests that Odessa is a reflection of the mixing of different nations and cultures. Contributions to the development of the city brought figures of Greek, Polish, Jewish, Ukrainian, German, Italian and French descent. In support of the above, you can cite the names of the streets that emerged at the dawn of the formation of Southern Palmyra: Polish, Jewish, Italian and French Boulevard, Moldavanka district. It is in the local restaurants of Odessa that a tourist can taste dishes from national cuisines of different nationalities. Doesn't this appearance of the city surprise, does not contribute to the desire to immerse yourself in this atmosphere?
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Odessa - a multinational soul
After in the 16th century, the lands of Odessa were liberated from the Turkish yoke by the glorious Kozaks of Z. Chepig, ataman Golovaty, P. Kalnyshevsky, immigrants of various nationalities rushed to this region. Each new settler sought to contribute to the development of the territory on the Black Sea coast. That is why there are a lot of buildings in different architectural styles in the city - the tourist’s eye now and then falls on samples of world architecture - buildings similar to those that adorn the streets of Rome, Vienna and Paris.
Walking through Odessa, you can meet Asians, Hindus, Africans, Arabs - these are not only tourists, but also students from local universities who want to get a marine, medical, economic or legal education. And in the summer, when the population increases almost 2 times, foreign guests practice additional income - they take pictures with local residents and visitors. Odessa is a direct confirmation that hundreds of nationalities can coexist peacefully on the same territory.
The role of diasporas in the formation of Odessa
The connection between Odessa and Greece is rather small, because the Greeks who settled in the city under the patronage of Catherine ΙΙ made a significant contribution to the development of the city. At the place of their settlement, in the historic center, is now the Greek Square - a favorite place for walking, with fountains, flower beds and recreation areas. And on the 210th anniversary in the Red Lane, the opening of the monument to the “Oath of the founders of“ Filiki Eteriya ”, dedicated to the eponymous secret organization created in Odessa and fighting for the independence of Greece, was held. One of the leaders of the company was G. Marazli, after whom Marazlievskaya Street was named in the city.
Practically since the founding of South Palmyra, Italians also appeared on its territory, which were engaged in entrepreneurial activities and started commercial contracts with the former homeland. Following the artisans, sailors and military coast of the Black Sea attracted pharmacists, art connoisseurs, teachers. The Italians created their own bakery and pasta factory. The famous cafe of Fanconi of the 70s was a favorite place of both cultural figures and local authorities. In addition, the first typography of the city belonged to the Italian. Today, also many cafes and institutions have a characteristic atmosphere and are Italian names.
The Italian language in the early 19th century spread so quickly that even the signs of the institutions were bilingual, and the bills and contracts were composed exclusively in the language of the Genoese. There were also signs with street names in Italian.
Is it possible to imagine Odessa without the French Boulevard, the monument to Duke, Langeronovskaya and Rishelievskaya streets, the beach "Langeron" and the Dyukovsky garden? Of course not! This is the mark that the eminent French left.
Rzhevusskie, Potocki, Brzhovskie - Polish nobility living in Odessa, built their houses on the street, which was later given the same name. The Poles also contributed to the development of foreign trade.
The constant influx of people of different nationalities, the growth of communities, led to the fact that in the first educational institution of Odessa, students in 1800 studied three languages at once - Russian, Greek and Italian.
Their mark in the history of Odessa is priceless
José Deribas became the first chief in charge of the construction of the merchant pier in Hadzhibey Bay. And the drafting of the main project was entrusted to the engineer Franz de Vollan. Land was allocated to the arriving population, the owners were exempted from taxes for 10 years. Deribas was the beginning of the development of handicrafts, trade and navigation. Deribasovskaya - the main street of today's Odessa, its image. She keeps the memory of many important events, attracting original sights. It is located "Passage" - a building with a unique architecture, with restaurants, boutiques and a hotel. The monument to the founder of the city, Deribas, holds the plan of the city with one hand, and the other rests on a shovel, is also a decoration of the street.
Herzog de Richelieu, who, by order of Alexander, was appointed to the post of governor and was given wide powers. His services to Odessa are countless. He organized the production of stearic candles, vacas, soaps, powders, and these plants were headed by the indigenous French. The first newspaper, and then the "Odessa Bulletin" were printed not only in Russian, but also in French. Bank houses also owned by the French. Richelieu abolished the port fee, introduced insurance of marine cargo, thanks to these reforms, Odessa attracted merchants from all around. During the reign of Richelieu, the city flourished: bazaars were founded, hospitals, theaters were built, the Richelieu Lyceum, a synagogue, and a Catholic church were built.
Earl de Langeron, an aristocrat of French origin, continued starting Richelieu and introduced the status of a special zone in Odessa - “Porto-Franco”, i.e. without a duty, a territory of 24 versts with two passages on Peresyp and Moldavanka was fenced with a deep and wide moat. This decision allowed Odessa to significantly raise its economy, and bread was exported to all corners of Europe through the port. Today, in honor of the count, the embankment is named “Langeron” - one of the most beautiful places in the city, with a beach, restaurants, fountains. The Nemo Dolphinarium is also located there.
A.Y. Bernardazzi - Italian architect, born in the Russian Empire. His works were distinguished by a wealth of forms and a large number of stucco. The main masterpieces of the master were the most famous hotel "Bristol", the house on Jewish 14 (now it's OMVD), the medical institute at Pasteur and the hospital on Belinsky 9.
Francesco Boffo - Italian, he was one of the first architects who made a significant contribution to the architectural development of the city. Today, to the gaze of the townspeople are presented such his offspring as the Vorontsov Palace, two concave buildings on the Potemkin Stairs and directly its project, which was later slightly modified by engineers from Britain.
Giorgio Toricelli, who arrived in Odessa at the same time as Boffo, developed the project of the Old Bazaar Square. Privoz, originating not far from the present Starobazarny Square, is a colorful highlight of the city, the place of purchase for all citizens of Odessa. The chapel (which the Bolsheviks demolished), the Maritime Museum, the house of Julien on Deribasovskaya 19, the Gagarins on Preobrazhenskaya and their own house on Deribasovskaya 27 are also Toricelli's merit. The unique architecture is imbued with the spirit of Italy, and all its buildings glorify the creator so far.
Jean Tom de Thomon is an architect who, by order of Richelieu, designed the project of the Odessa Theater, built in the period 1804-1809 by Franz Frapolli.
Odessa is a city in which representatives of more than a hundred nationalities live, therefore, architecture gives it a special charm, and residents, in whose veins the blood of different nations flows. These factors became decisive in the formation of the attractive atmosphere of the city, which you want to plunge into. Maybe right now?