Theater, cinema and music of Odessa
Odessa is a city in which not only architectural heritage, but also cultural one is fully reflected. She has always been famous for her talents in the world of theater, film and music. It was creative people with their talents that became the impetus for the development of cultural life in Odessa.
The most famous cultural heritage of Odessa is the National Academic Opera and Ballet Theater. His story is closely connected with famous composers, performers and writers of different periods. On the theater stage, such genres of art as opera, ballet, drama took place. E. Caruso, F. Shalyapin, A. Nezhdanov brought their performances here, A. Pavlova and A. Duncan danced, were staged "Carmen", "Natalka-Poltavka", "Giselle", "The Nutcracker". The theater fully contributed to the development of art in Odessa, and in the whole in the south.
The most talented playwrights presented their productions in the Russian Drama Theater. A. Ivanova. Its history dates back to 1875, and it acquired the status of a state in 1927, after the war. In the pre-revolutionary period, his scene saw performances of famous European troupes, actors, world stars of drama theater and cinema: S. Bernard, E. Duze, M. Zankovetskaya, P. Saksagansky, M. Kropivnitsky. The first in the new history of the theater was the production of the play “Eugen Neschny”. The theater is actively engaged in creative work, surprising the viewer with new works.
Academic Music and Drama Theater. V. Vasilko was founded in 1903 on the initiative of A. Sibiryakov. M. Savina, P. Tchaikovsky, M. Kropivnitsky performed on its stage. The theater has become a platform for the opening of new themes and art stars. It was in this theater that the plays of B. Brecht, A. Pushkin, W. Shakespeare, A. Mickiewicz were staged for the first time in Ukraine. His first production was the play “Arsonists” by A. Lunacharsky.
Such masters as A. Korneychuk - “Death of the Stage”, M. Kulish - the play “97”, I. Mykytenko - “Dictatorship” presented their works on the stage. The latter was in charge of the literary part of the theater. In the name of an outstanding actor, playwright, the theater began to be called since 1995 - this is how his contribution to the development of national art was appreciated. In addition to teaching, Vasily Vasilko was involved in staging performances, 20 of which were included in the theater’s “Golden Fund”.
Theater musical comedy them. M. Vodyanoi is a favorite place of Odessa citizens, which opens the world of art through performances in the operetta genre. Opened in 1981, it is clearly distinguished by modern forms of architecture. Performances of various genres and directions, from classical to rock opera and musicals, are staged on the in-house theater stage.
Odessa Film Studio is the oldest in Ukraine - it is 97 years old. Over the years, numerous films have been filmed within its walls, most of which have become world movie masterpieces. Here worked P. Todorovsky, V. Shukshin, V. Vysotsky, L. Gaidai, K. Muratova and other talented directors. Their contribution to the development of the cinema of the world and, in particular, in the USSR is priceless. And it all started right here, in Odessa, when in 1893 the Odessa engineer Joseph Timchenko assembled the first camera in the world, and later removed two tapes “Jumping Horseman”, “Spear thrower”.
Later, already before the revolution, the number of film studios increased - 6 private studios, and they fiercely competed with each other. The owner of one of them invited the real star Vera Kholodnaya, and it was for her that the first pavilion was built in the country. Today, one of the pavilions of the Odessa Film Studio is named after her.
Back in 1919, thanks to the surviving employees, the movie does not die. The Bolsheviks who came to power nationalize the equipment from all the film studios and give the nod to the foundation of the first state film studio. In 1926, Alexander Dovzhenko moved to the city, glorifying the studio to the whole world. His first works were “Vasya the Reformer”, “The Berry of Love”, who did not achieve particular success. However, the following works have glorified the director - “Bag of the Diplomatic Courier”, “Zvenigora” (1927), “Earth”, “Arsenal” - many film experts consider these film works as the starting point in the development of Soviet cinema.
The name of Y. Yanovsky is also closely connected with cinema - a friend of A. Dovzhenko was an art editor and screenwriter. According to his script, the film Hamburg was shot.
"Admiral Nakhimov", "Spring on Zarechnaya Street", "Gypsy", "D'Artagnan and the Three Musketeers", "The Adventures of Electronics" is not a complete list of films made at the famous Odessa Film Studio. Here such actors as A. Papanov, L. Udovichenko, V. Vysotsky were shot for the first time.
Most of the history of the film studio, its formation can be traced through the preserved photographs, albums, attributes of film equipment, costumes, personal belongings of actors and directors exhibited in the Museum of Cinema.
Odessa is a musical city, and it is impossible to argue with that. South Palmyra presented the world with many talented musicians, and the connection with the musical culture of Moscow and St. Petersburg played a significant role here. Odessa attracted already accomplished figures who liked to live and work here. They invested their talent in young talents. The formation of music education fell on the second half of the 19th century.
School of pianism
The most talented musicians Rubinstein, Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninov, Rimsky-Korsakov played a huge role in the development of music - they supported the discovery of the Irmo. In 1886, the Odessa Musical Society, together with the Society of Fine Arts, transferred their premises to IRMO, where they later opened music classes and organized concerts. Despite the fact that there were only one piano, two violins, viola and cello, there were performances organized more and more, and interest in the study of music increased.
A significant contribution was made by Dmitry Klimov, invited to the role of the director of the institution and the senior lecturer, who was called directly from the St. Petersburg Conservatory. Klimov applied the St. Petersburg program of study with the division into the junior, middle and upper classes, depending on the level of knowledge. He obliged all students to attend singing lessons and in the first year of work he organized a choir of 118 people. And in 1891 an orchestral classroom was opened. Under the direction of Klimov, the orchestra gave concerts.
Thanks to the professor, the musical education of the Odessa public increased, a delicate musical taste developed. At concerts, memorable evenings, his students performed symphonies of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and contemporaries of Tchaikovsky, Glinka, Glazunov. Pleased the viewer and Klimov himself, with his performances on the piano. He worked for 20 years, since 1888, and made every effort to build the building of the music school in 1902, where the Odessa Conservatory of Odessa is located today. A.V. Nezhdanova. Odessa Music School, founded by Klimov, became a solid foundation for studying musical culture. Higher mastery of its graduates was appreciated not only at home, but also far beyond its borders.
The most prominent representatives of the Odessa violin school were PP. Sokalsky - the first to open free music lessons in the city. It is worth noting the significant contribution of other violin teachers from Pavel Pustarnakov, G. Freeman, A. Fidelman, R. Stupka.
Music school for gifted children Stolyarsky, opened in 1933, was one of the most eminent - teachers engaged in music with children from 3 years. The feature of the Stolyarsky program was the approach to the students - the classes took place in a game form, taking into account the psychological characteristics of the child. A graduate of the school D. Oistrakh glorified her and his teacher in the whole of Europe, becoming the winner of the competition named Yizhen Isai.
Outstanding representatives of the violin class were Victor Pikazen - a student of Oistrakh and a soloist of the Moscow Philharmonic Society, as well as Zahar Bron - winner of international competitions in Poznan and Brussels.
The fruitful activity of violin teachers led to the development and establishment of the methodical principles of teaching violin, traditions of national art, as well as the opening of educational institutions in the city.
Odessa adored L. Utesov, V. Vysotsky, L. Zingertal, Y. Morfessi, P. Leschenko, A. Vertinsky - their work captivated the souls of the fans then, and does it today.